Philosophy Magazine

Convince Me There’s A God – Archaeology 32

By Mmcgee

Convince Me Theres A GodBefore we move to the next phase of Israel’s history, let’s review what was available from archeology about Israel’s kings and other Iron Age II (1000 – 539 BC) notables mentioned in the Bible during the time I was investigating the historical reliability of the Old Testament 45 years ago (except where listed with asterisk **).

10th Century BC

King David

1 Samuel 16

2 Samuel 5

Tell Dan Stele **

Mesha Stele


1 Samuel 17

Goliath Inscription **

Gath Inscription **

Pharaoh Shishak (Shoshenq I)

1 Kings 11:40; 14:25; 2 Chronicles 12

Karnak Temple of Amun Reliefs

9th Century BC

King Ahab

1 Kings 16; 21 and 22

Mesha Stele

Kurkh Monolith

Palace in Samaria

Ben Hadad II

2 Kings 8 & 13

Tell Dan Stele **

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

King Hazael

2 Kings 8 & 12

Tell Dan Stele **

Gath siege trench **

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Ivory Decoration Inscription at Khadatu

King Jehu (Joram)

1 Kings 19:16-17; 2 Kings 9:20; 10:31

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Queen Jezebel

1 Kings 16:31; 21; 2 Kings 9

Palace in Samaria

Stamp bulla

King Mesha of Moab

2 Kings 3

Mesha Stele (Moabite Stone)

King Omri

1 Kings 16; 2 Kings 8:26; 2 Chronicles 22:2; Micah 6:16

Mesha Stele

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III


Numbers 6:24-26

Mesha Stele

House of God Ostracon (7th-6th century BC)

Silver Scrolls and Ketef Hinnom Amulets **

8th Century BC

King Ahaz

2 Kings 16

Matthew 1

Stamp bulla **

Stamp bulla **


2 Chronicles 31

Stamp bulla **

Stamp bulla **

Immer family name

Jeremiah 20 & 38

Stamp bulla **

King Hezekiah

2 Kings 16:20; 18:1-2

Stamp bulla **

Water tunnel

Annals of Sennacherib

Sennacherib Annals

Jerusalem broad wall **

The Azekah Inscription

Taylor Prism

King Hoshea

2 Kings 15:30; 17:1

Stamp bulla

Assyrian Records of Tisglath-Pilser III

King Jeroboam II

2 Kings 13:13; 1 Chronicles 5:17; Amon 1:1; 7:9-11

Megiddo Seal – Jeroboam Inscription

King Jotham (Uzziah’s son)

2 Kings 15:32

Stamp bulla

King Menahem

2 Kings 15:14-23

Assyrian Records of Tiglath-Pilser III

King Merodach-baladan

2 Kings 20:12; Isaiah 39

Sennacherib Prism

Annals of Sargon of Assyria

Marble Boundary Stone

King Pekah

2 Kings 15:27

Assyrian Records of Tisglath-Pilser III

Tiglath-Pilser III (Pul)

2 Kings 15:19, 29; 1 Chronicles 5:6; 2 Chronicles 28:20

Assyrian Records of Tisglath-Pilser III

Palace Wall Relief

King Sargon II

Isaiah 20:1

Palace of Sargon

Annals of Sargon

Winged Bull of Sargon II

Royal Brick Inscription

King Sennacherib of Assyria

2 Kings 18:13; 19:16-36; 2 Chronicles 32; Isaiah 36; 37

Annals of Sennacherib

Sargon’s Palace Reliefs

Taylor Prism

Royal Brick Inscription


2 Kings 18:18-37; Isaiah 22:15-25

Royal Steward Inscription

King Uzziah (Azariah)

2 Kings 15:13-34; 2 Chronicles 26; 27; Isaiah 6:1

Uzziah Burial Palace

Stamp bulla

7th Century BC


2 Kings 22

Stamp bulla

King Ashurbanipal

Ezra 4

2 Chronicles 33

Nineveh library texts

Stele of Ashurbanipal

Nineveh palace reliefs


2 Kings 22

Stamp bulla


Jeremiah 28

Stamp bulla


Jeremiah 32

Stamp bulla **

King Esarhaddon

2 Kings 19

Ezra 4

Isaiah 37

Letters of Esarhaddon

Stone Prism of Esarhaddon (British Museum Photo)

Wall relief of Esarhaddon

Esarhaddon Chronicle

Royal Brick Inscription

Stone Lion’s Head with Inscription


Jeremiah 38

Stamp bulla


Jeremiah 28

Stamp bulla **


2 Kings 22:4-14; 23:4, 24

Stamp bulla **

Son of Immer

Jeremiah 20:1

Assyrian Records of Tisglath-Pilser III

Stamp bulla **


2 Kings 25:23; Jeremiah 40:8

Stamp bulla

King Jehoahaz (Shallum)

2 Kings 23:30-34; 1 Chronicles 3:15; 2 Chronicles 36

Stamp bulla


Jeremiah 36:26

Stamp bulla

Joezer and Igdaliah

Jeremiah 35:4; 1 Chronicles 12:6

Stamp bulla


Jeremiah 38:6

Stamp bulla

King Manasseh

2 Kings 20:21; 21; 2 Chronicles 33:10-11

Stamp bulla

Prism B of Esarhaddon


2 Kings 22:3

Stamp bulla


2 Kings 23:11

Stamp bulla

King Nebuchadnezzar

2 Kings 24; Daniel 1 – 5

Babylonian Chronicles

Ishtar Gate

Behistun Inscription

East India House Inscription

Royal Brick Inscriptions

Pharaoh Necho

Jeremiah 36:32




Jeremiah 36:32

Stamp bulla **


Jeremiah 51:59

Stamp bulla **


2 Kings 22:12

Stamp bulla **


Jeremiah 37:3

Stamp bulla **

Pharaoh Tirhakah (Taharqa)

2 Kings 15:13-34; 2 Chronicles 26; 27; Isaiah 6:1

Esarhaddon Victory Stele

Tirhakah Sphinx

Tirhakah Wall Carving

Tirhakah Statute **

6th Century BC

King Ba’alis

Jeremiah 40

Stamp bulla

King Belshazzar

Daniel 5, 7 & 8

Nabonidus Chronicle (article)

Cylinder of Nabonidus (article)

King Cyrus II

2 Chronicles 36

Ezra 1

Isaiah 44 & 45

Cyrus Cylinder (article)

Cyrus Brick Inscriptions

Tomb at Pasargadae

King Darius I

Ezra 4

Elephantine Papyri

Behistun Inscription

Tomb at Persepolis


2 Kings 18

Stamp bulla


Jeremiah 36

Stamp bulla

King Evil-Merodach

2 Kings 25

Jeremiah 52

Jehoiachin Ration Tablet


2 Kings 25

Jeremiah 39, 40, 41 & 43

Stamp bulla


Jeremiah 29 & 36

Lachish Letters

Stamp bulla **

Pharaoh Hophra (Apries)

Jeremiah 44:30

Babylonian Chronicles (article)

Herodotus’s Histories

Palace at Memphis (photo)

Tablet Reliefs from Abydos

King Jehoiachin (Coniah)

2 Kings 24:8-15; 2 Chronicles 36; Jeremiah 22:24-28; 37:1

Jehoiachin Ration Record

Jar handles stamped with king’s name at Beth-Shemesh and Tell Beit Mirsim (detailed article about finger-impressed jar handles at Khirbet Qeiyafa)

Babylonian Chronicles


Jeremiah 37:3; 38:1

Stamp bulla


1 Chronicles 3:18

Stamp bulla


Jeremiah 39:3

Cuneiform Tablet (British Museum)

5th Century BC

King Ahasuerus (Xerxes I)

Esther 1

Silver Bowl of Artaxerses I

Tomb at Persepolis

Elephantine Papyri

Palace wall relief in Persepolis

King Artaxerses I

Ezra 4 & 7

Nehemiah 2, 5 & 13

Silver Bowl Inscription

Elphantine Papyri

Tomb at Persepolis

King Darius (the Persian)

Nehemiah 12

Behistun Inscription

Palace wall relief at Persepolis

Silver Bowl of Artaxerxes I


Ezra 8

Stamp bulla


Nehemiah 2:10

Elephantine Papyri


1 Chronicles 3:19

Stamp seal **


We hope this list is helpful to you in your research. Join us next time as we look at what archaeological evidence for the Old Testament was available in 1971 for the Second Temple period (Post Exile).

“Scripture taken from the New King James Version®. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson. Used by permission. All rights reserved.”


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