Lifestyle Magazine

Japanese Self-Studying Updates (Lessons 32 and 33)

By Vanessa Kay @blushinggeek

Konnichiwa minna-san!

Happy Monday everyone! Hope you guys had a wonderful Thanksgiving, *smile.

So last week I was finally able to reached lesson 30 and it was crazy. It’s crazy because it feels like it was just yesterday when I decided to study Japanese. And my! I am really learning a lot. It wasn’t easy like what I first thought it would be but I am really having a blast learning Japanese.

Last week’s lessons we’re about connecting verbs and adjectives and guess what I’ll be studying this week? Aside from reviewing verbs, I am also learning another way of using have. Unlike English, there’s a lot of ways on how to use have in Japanese depending on their uses. And I think I’ll be having problems with my brain remembering all those forms, lol. But all’s good. I still have a week to get familiarize with this week’s lessons before I go to the next one, *wink.

And again, this is not an attempt to create a tutorial but just sharing what I’ve learn from Misa-sensei’s Grammar Lessons for Absolute Beginners in Youtube. You can see what I’ve been learning from Lessons 1-31 here.

Click on the lesson number to read the whole update.

LESSON 32: Review Test of Verbs (MASU, TE, Negation)

To learn about the MASU form, go to lesson 9
For the TE form, go to lessons 13–17
For informal past tense, refer to lesson 19
For asking permission, go to lesson 23
For don’t do ~ (naide) form, go to lesson 25
For tari form, go to lesson 28

to sleep => nemasu <formal>, neru <informal>
don’t sleep => nemasen <formal>, nenai <informal>
slept => nemashita <formal>, neta <informal>
didn’t sleep => nemasen deshita <formal>, nenakatta <informal>
please sleep => nete (kudasai)
please don’t sleep => nenaide kudasai
Can I sleep?
=> Netemo ii (desu ka)?
Don’t sleep <forbidding>
=> Netewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Necha dame <informal>

to listen => kikimasu <formal>, kiku <informal>
don’t listen => kikimasen <formal>, kikanai <informal>
listened => kikimashita <formal>, kiita <informal>
didn’t listen => kikimasen deshita <formal>, kikanakatta <informal>
please listen => kiite (kudasai)
please don’t listen => kikanaide kudasai
Can I listen to music?
=> Ongaku wo kiitemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not listen to music
=> Ongaku wo kiitewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Ongaku wo kiicha dame <informal>

to drink => nomimasu <formal>, nomu <informal>
don’t drink => nomimasen <formal>, nomanai <informal>
drank => nomimashita <formal>, nonda <informal>
didn’t drink => nomimasen deshita <formal>, nomanakatta <informal>
please drink => nonde (kudasai)
please don’t drink => nomanaide kudasai
Can I drink water?
=> Mizu wo nondemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not drink alcohol
=> Osake wo nondewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Osake wo nonja dame <informal>

to hangout => asobimasu <formal>, asobu <informal>
don’t hangout => asobimasen <formal>, asobanai <informal>
hungout => asobimashita <formal>, asonda <informal>
didn’t hangout => asobimasen deshita <formal>, asobanakatta <informal>
please hangout => asonde (kudasai)
please don’t hangout => asobanaide kudasai
Don’t hangout with that person
=>Ano hito to asobanaide
Can I hangout with my friends?
=> Tomodachi to asondemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not hangout with your friend
=> Tomodachi to asondewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Tomodachi to asonja dame <informal>

to open => akemasu <formal>, akeru <informal>
don’t open => akemasen <formal>, akenai <informal>
opened => akemashita <formal>, aketa <informal>
didn’t open => akemasen deshita <formal>, akenakatta <informal>
please open => akete (kudasai)
please don’t open => akenaide kudasai
Can I open the window?
=> Mado wo aketemo ii (desu ka)?
You  must not open the window
=> Mado wo aketewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Mado wo akecha dame <informal>

to close => shimemasu <formal>, shimeru <informal>
don’t close => shimemasen <formal>, shimenai <informal>
closed => shimemashita <formal>, shimeta <informal>
didn’t close => shimemasen deshita <formal>, shimenakatta <informal>
please close => shimete (kudasai)
please don’t close => shimenaide kudasai
Can I close the window?
=> Mado wo shimetemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not close the window
=> Mado wo shimetewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Mado wo shimecha dame <informal>

TO ENTER => HAIRU <exception>
to enter => hairimasu <formal>, hairu <informal>
don’t enter => hairimasen <formal>, hairanai <informal>
entered => hairimashita <formal>, haitta <informal>
didn’t enter => hairimasen deshita <formal>, hairanakatta <informal>
please enter => haitte (kudasai)
please don’t enter => hairanaide kudasai
I didn’t take a bath
=> Ofuro ni hairimasen deshita <formal>
(lit. I didn’t get in the bath)
Can I take a bath?
=> Ofuro ni haittemo ii (desu ka)?
(lit. Can I enter in the bath?)
You must not / are not allowed to enter this building
=> Kono tatemono ni haittewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Kono tatemono ni haiccha dame <informal>

to leave => demasu <formal>, deru <informal>
don’t leave => demasen <formal>, denai <informal>
left => demashita <formal>, deta <informal>
didn’t leave => demasen deshita <formal>, denakatta <informal>
please leave => dete (kudasai)
please don’t leave => denaide kudasai
My friend didn’t pick up / answer the phone
=> Tomodachi wa denwa ni denakatta <informal>
Can I leave the house?
=> Uchi wo detemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not leave the house
=> Uchi wo detewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Uchi wo decha dame <informal>

to send => okurimasu <formal>, okuru <informal>
don’t send => okurimasen <formal>, okuranai <informal>
sent => okurimashita <formal>, okutta <informal>
didn’t send => okurimasen deshita <formal>, okuranakatta <informal>
please send => okutte (kudasai)
please don’t send => okuranaide kudasai
I sent an email to my teacher
=> Sensei ni meeru wo okutta <informal>
Can I send a picture?
=> Shashin wo okuttemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not send a letter
=> Tegami wo okuttewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Tegami wo okuccha dame <informal>

to take => torimasu <formal>, toru <informal>
don’t take => torimasen <formal>, toranai <informal>
took => torimashita <formal>, totta <informal>
didn’t take => torimasen deshita <formal>, toranakatta <informal>
please take => totte (kudasai)
please don’t take => toranaide kudasai
Please don’t take a picture of me
=> Watashi no shashin wo toranaide kudasai
I took a lot of pictures
=> Takusan shashin wo totta / Shashin wo takusan totta <informal>
Can I take a picture?
=> Shashin wo tottemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not take a picture in the art museum
=> Bijutsukan de shashin wo tottewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Bijutsukan de shashin wo toccha dame <informal>

to use => tsukaimasu <formal>, tsukau <informal>
don’t use => tsukaimasen <formal>, tsukawanai <informal>
used => tsukaimashita <formal>, tsukatta <informal>
didn’t use => tsukaimasen deshita <formal>, tsukawanakatta <informal>
please use > tsukatte (kudasai)
please don’t use => tsukawanaide kudasai
Can I use this pen?
=> Pen wo tsukattemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not use the dictionary
=> Jisho wo tsukattewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Jisho wo tsukaccha dame <informal>

to make => tsukurimasu <formal>, tsukuru <informal>
don’t make => tsukurimasen <formal>, tsukuranai <informal>
made => tsukurimashita <formal>, tsukutta <informal>
didn’t make => tsukurimasen deshita <formal>, tsukuranakatta <informal>
please make => tsukutte (kudasai)
please don’t make => tsukuranaide kudasai
I made sandwiches
=> Sandoicchi wo tsukutta <informal>
Can I make a dinner?
=> Bangohan wo tsukuttemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not make a new friend
=> Atarashii tomodachi wo tsukuttewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Atarashii tomodachi wo tsukuccha dame <informal>

TO CUT => KIRU <exception>
to cut => kirimasu <formal>, kiru <informal>
don’t cut => kirimasen <formal>, kiranai <informal>
did cut => kirimashita <formal>, kitta <informal>
didn’t cut => kirimasen deshita <formal>, kiranakatta <informal>
please cut => kitte (kudasai)
please don’t cut => kiranaide kudasai
Please cut it short
=> Mijikaku kitte kudasai
I cut it by myself
=> Jibun de kitta <informal>
Can I cut the vegetables?
=> Yasai wo kittemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not cut your fingers
=> Yobi wo kittewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Yobi wo kiccha dame <informal>

to talk => hanashimasu <formal>, hanasu <informal>
don’t talk => hanashimasen <formal>, hanasanai <informal>
talked => hanashimashita <formal>, hanashita <informal>
didn’t talk => hanashimasen deshita <formal>, hanasanakatta <informal>
please talk => hanashite (kudasai)
please don’t talk => hanasanaide kudasai
Can I talk in Japanese?
=> Nihongo wo hanashitemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not talk here
=> Koko de hanashitewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Koko de hanashicha dame <informal>

to buy => kaimasu <formal>, kau <informal>
don’t buy => kaimasen <formal>, kawanai <informal>
bought => kaimashita <formal>, katta <informal>
didn’t buy => kaimasen deshita <formal>, kawanakatta <informal>
please buy => katte (kudasai)
please don’t buy => kawanaide kudasai
Can I buy chocolate?
=> Choko wo kattemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not buy in that store
=> Ano mise de kattewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Ano mise de kaccha dame <informal>

to forget => wasuremasu <formal>, wasureru <informal>
don’t forget => wasuremasen <formal>, wasurenai <informal>
forgot => waruremashita <formal>, wasureta <informal>
didn’t forget => wasuremasen deshita <formal>, wasurenakatta <informal>
please forget => wasurete (kudasai)
please don’t forget => wasurenaide kudasai
Can I forget everything?
=> Zenbu wasuretemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not forget the phone number
=> Denwabangou wo wasuretewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Denwabangou wo wasurecha dame <informal>

to borrow => karimasu <formal>, kariru <informal>
don’t borrow => karimasen <formal>, karinai <informal>
borrowed => karimashita <formal>, karita <informal>
didn’t borrow => karimasen deshita <formal>, karinakatta <informal>
please borrow => karite (kudasai)
please don’t borrow => karinaide kudasai
Can I borrow your pen?
=> Pen wo karitemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not borrow your friend’s money
=> Tomodachi no okane wo karitewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Tomodachi no okane wo karicha dame <informal>

to study => benkyou shimasu <formal>, benkyou suru <informal>
don’t study => benkyou shimasen <formal>, benkyou shinai <informal>
studied => benkyou shimashita <formal>, benkyou shita <informal>
didn’t study => benkyou shimasen deshita <formal>, benkyou shinakatta <informal>
please study => benkyou shite (kudasai)
please don’t study => benkyou shinaide kudasai
I didn’t study Japanese at the University
=> Daigaku de nihongo wo benkyou shinakatta <informal>
Can I study with my friend?
=> Tomodachi to benkyou shitemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not study with friend
=> Tomodachi to benkyou shitewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Tomodachi to benkyou shicha dame <informal>

to turn on => tsukemasu <formal>, tsukeru <informal>
don’t turn on => tsukemasen <formal>, tsukenai <informal>
turned on => tsukemashita <formal>, tsuketa <informal>
didn’t turn on => tsukemasen deshita <formal>, tsukenakatta <informal>
please turn on => tsukete (kudasai)
please don’t turn on => tsukenaide kudasai
May I turn the lights on?
=> Denki wo tsuketemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not turn the lights on
=> Denki wo tsuketewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Denki wo tsukecha dame <informal>

to wash => araimasu <formal>, arau <informal>
don’t wash => araimasen <formal>, arawanai <informal>
washed => araimashita <formal>, aratta <informal>
didn’t wash => araimasen deshita <formal>, arawanakatta <informal>
please wash => aratte (kudasai)
please don’t wash => arawanaide kudasai
Can I wash the shirt?
=> Shatsu wo arattemo ii (desu ka)?
You must not wash the red shirt and white shirt together
=> Akai shatsu to shiroi shatsu wo isshoni arattewa ikemasen <formal>
=> Akai shatsu to shiro shatsu wo isshoni araccha dame <informal>

New vocabularies learned from this lesson:

  • juusu => juice
  • ofuro => bath
  • meeru => email
  • sandoicchi => sandwich
  • mijikaku => short
  • jibun => myself
  • yasai => vegetables
  • denwabangou => phone number
  • shatsu => shirt

LESSON #33: Have To ~ / Must ~ / Gotta ~

For informal negation of verbs, refer to lesson 24.

Have to ~

  • nakya <informal>
    => transform the verb into informal negation form
    => change nai into nakya
    Ex: not eat = tabenai => have to eat = tabenakya
    => nakya is the informal abbreviation of nakereba which means if not. (if I will not do ~)
If there’s eba at the end, it means it’s a conditional if.
Ex: tabereba = if (I) eat
  • nakereba ikenai or nakereba naranai <formal>
    => transform the verb into informal negation form
    => change nai into nakereba ikenai or nakereba naranai
    Ex: not eat = tabenai => have to eat = tabenakereba ikenai / naranai

nakereba ikemasen / narimasen
= have to / must
(formal language used to talk politely)
Ex: tabenakereba ikemasen / narimasen
= have to eat
(lit. It wouldn’t be good if I don’t eat)

What’s the difference between nakereba ikemasen and nakereba narimasen?

  • nakereba ikanai / ikemasen = more subjective
    (the speaker feels the need to do something
  • nakereba naranai / narimasen = more objective
    (I must do it because others expects me or because others told me so)

nakya + ikemasen
= have to <semi-formal>
(used with neighbors, friend’s parents, etc.)

nakereba ikemasen
= have to <formal>
(used when talking with the bosses, clients or superiors)

= comes from nakutewa
= also means have to / gotta

What’s the difference between nakya and nakucha?

= they both mean the same thing but some says nakucha sounds more feminine and nakya sounds more urgent
Ex: ikanakya = gotta go <urgent>
ikanakucha = gotta go <less urgent>

You can use them interchangeably and you can make them sound urgent just by changing your tone.

For this lesson, we will focus with nakya and nakereba ikemasen since they’re more commonly used.

have to go
=> ikanakya <informal>

In Japanese, they usually add the word mou

Have to go now
=> Mou ikanakya <informal>
(lit. gotta go already)

They don’t usually use ima in the example lessonsabove but it’s not wrong if you use it. But the native way is to use mou instead of ima.

Have to go soon
=> Mousugu ikanakya <informal>
=> Sorosoro ikanakya <informal>
=> Sorosoro ikanakereba ikemasen <formal>

Mousugu and sorosoro both means soon but sorosoro is most used when the time is expected. Also, sorosoro is most commonly used in formal speeches.

You could also say informally as:
Have to go soon
=> Sorosoro ikanaido


Rule for easy use <formal>

  • eru/iru => NAkereba ikemasen
  • other verbs => ANAkereba ikemasen

Have to go to work
=> Shigoto ni ikanakya <informal>
Have to go to work tomorrow
=> Ashita shigoto ni ikanakya <informal>
Have to go home
=>Kaeranakya <informal>
=> Kaeranakereba ikemasen <formal>
made => until / up to ~
madeni => by ~
I have to go home by 5
=> Goji madeni kaeranakya <informal>
=> Goji madeni kaeranakereba ikemasen <formal>

Have to do homework
=> Shukudai shinakya <finformal>
=> Shukudai shinakereba ikemasen <formal>

Remember that ~nakya / ~nakereba also means : If I don’t ~?
So you could use it as:
If I don’t do my homework, my mom will be angry with me
=> Shukudai shinakya, my mom will be angry with me

When someone does something to me (victim) in Japanese, they use the passive form.

okoru => to be angry
= passive form: okorareru (to be angry)

Someone is angry with me (I get blame)
=> (I wa) someone ni okorareru

Ex: If I don’t do my homework, my mom will be angry with me
=> Shukudai shinakya, okaasan ni okorareru

I have to buy
=> Kawanakya
I have to buy a new shoes
=> Atarashii kutso wo kawanakya <informal>
=> Atarashii kutso wo kawanakereba ikemasen <formal>

Have to sing
= Utawanakya <informal>
I have to sing in front of everyone
=> Minna no mae de utawanakya <informal>
minna => everyone
in front of ~
= ~ no mae
Depending on the verb you will use, you have to either use it with de or ni particle.
But for the example above, we use the de particle since to sing (utau) is an action verb.
Ex: I live in front of ~
=> ~ no mae ni sumu / sundeiru

~ no mae de + action verb
(e.g. to eat, write sing, cook, dance, etc.)
= do in front of ~

You use nakya when it is intended to be put at the end of the sentence, but if it is not, like with kara (because), you put ikenai after nakya.
Ex: because I have to
=> ~ nakya ikenai kara

I hate karaoke, because I have to sing in front of everyone
=> Minna no mae de utewanakya ikenai kara, karaoke ga kirai

Have to drink / gotta drink
=> Nomanakya <informal>
Gotta drink because it’s Friday!
=> Kinyoubi dakara, nomanakya! <informal>
dakara => because of that, that’s why, therefore

dasu = can mean a lot of things but the most common is to take out.
To take money out of the wallet
=> Saifu kara okane wo dasu
(lit. to take money from wallet)
Okane wo dasu could also mean:
= to pay (or harau)
to serve sweets / tea
=> Okashi / ocha wo dasu
(lit. to take out sweets / tea)
gomi => trash / garbage
To take out the trash
=> Gomi wo dasu
suteru => to throw away
To throw away the garbage
=> Gomi wo suteru
Have to take out the trash
=> Gomi wo dasanakya <informal>
=> Gomi wo dasanakereba ikemasen <formal>

Have to wait
=> Matanakya <informal>
Have to wait a bit
=> Chotto / Sukoshi matanakya <informal>
Have to wait a bit more / longer
=> Mou chotto / sukoshi matanakya <informal>
Have to do one’s best / work hard
=> Ganbaranakya <informal>
=> Ganbaranakereba ikemasen <formal>

Have to study
=> Benkyou shinakya <informal>
Have to study more
=> Motto benkyou shinakya <informal>
=> Motto benkyou shinakereba ikemasen <formal>
Have to read
=> Yomanakya <informal>
Have to read this book
=> Kono hon wo yomanakya <informal>
=> Kono hon wo yomanakereba ikemasen <formal>

kiku => to ask / to listen
listen to something
= ~ wo kiku
ask someone something
=> ~ wo someone ni kiku
I have to ask my teacher
> Sensei ni kikanakya <informal>
oya => parent(s)
ryoushin => both parents
I have to ask my parents
=> Oya ni kikanakya <informal>
I have to ask / listen
=> Kikanakya <informal>
=> Kikanakerebe ikemasen <formal>
I have to listen to music
=> Ongaku wo kikanakya <informal>
=> Ongaku wo kikanakereba ikemasen <formal>

Have to exercise
=> Undou shinakya <informal>
kenkou => health
kenkou no tame ni => for health
noun + no tame ni
= for the sake of ~ / for ~

I exercise everyday to stay fit (for my health)
=> Kenkou no tame ni mainichi undou suru
I have to exercise everyday to stay fit (for my health)
=> Kenkou no tame ni mainichi undou shinakya <informal>

Have to take a shower
=> Shawaa wo abinakya <informal>
=> Shawaa wo abinakereba ikemasen <formal>

Have to call
=> Denwa wo shinakya / kakenakya

To call (lit. TO) someone
= someone NI denwa wo kakeru / suru
I have to call my mom
=> Okaasan ni denwa wo kakenakya / suru

Have to talk
=> Hanasanakya <informal>
I have to speak Japanese
=> Nihongo wo hanasanakya <informal>
I have to talk in Japanese
=> Nihongo de hanasanakya <informal>
I have to speak Japanese more
=> Motto nihongo wo hanasanakya <informal>

Have to clean
=> Souji shinakya <informal>
I have to clean my room
=> Heya wo souji shinakya <informal>
=> Heya wo souji shinakereba ikemasen <formal>

Have to review
=> Fukushuu shinakya <informal>

tanoshimu => to enjoy
Have to have fun
=> Tanoshimanakya <informal>
You have to / must enjoy Japanese
=> Nihongo wo tanoshimanakya <informal>
Studying is important but having fun is also important
=> Benkyou suru no wa daiji dakedo, tanoshimu no mou daiji

New vocabularies learned from this lesson:

  • mousugu => soon
  • sorosoro => soon
  • madeni => by ~
  • okoru => to be angry
  • dakara => because of that, that’s why, therefore
  • saifu => wallet
  • harau => to pay
  • gomi => trash / garbage
  • suteru => to throw away
  • sukoshi => a small amount of something
  • ryoushin => both parents
  • kenkou => health
  • kenkou no tame ni => for health
  • tanoshimu => to enjoy

Pheeww. This is probably the longest update I did so far because of lesson 32 which is the review of all the form of verbs on the previous lessons I learned. It was quite confusing when you look at it, but once you understand how to do it, then you’ll realize it’s easy, *wink.

For the earlier lessons, you can refer to my previous updates for lessons 1-31. And again, if you want to study Japanese language as well, I am highly recommending Misa-sensei’s youtube tutorial for Japanese Grammar Lessons for Absolute BeginnersJaa mata ne!

Japanese Self-Studying Updates (Lessons 32 and 33)

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