Culture Magazine

Egypt Geography

By Egyking
 Egypt is predominantly desert , 97% desert . Only 35,000 square kilometres - 3.5 percent of the total land area - are cultivated and permanently settled. Most of the country lies within the wide band of desert that stretches from Africa's Atlantic Coast across the continent and into southwest Asia.
Egypt's geological history has produced four major physical regions: The Nile Valley & Delta, the Libyan Desert (also known as the Western Desert), the Eastern Desert (also known as the Arabian Desert), and the Sinai Peninsula. The Nile Valley and Delta is the most important region because it supports 99 percent of the population on the country's only cultivable land.

Egypt Geography

Egypt Geography


Egypt map

Egypt map


Size: Approximately 1 million square kilometers.
Climate: Egypt Climate. Except for modest amounts of rainfall along Mediterranean coast, precipitation ranges from minimal to nonexistent. Mild winters (November to April) and hot summers (May to October).
Egypt Geography
Physical Size and Borders

Egypt, covering 1,001,449 square kilometers of land, is about the same size as Texas and New Mexico combined. The country's greatest distance from north to south is 1,024 kilometers, and from east to west, 1,240 kilometers.
The country is located in northeastern Africa and includes the Sinai Peninsula (also seen as Sinai), which is often considered part of Asia. Egypt's natural boundaries consist of more than 2,900 kilometers of coastline along the Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Red Sea.
Egypt has land boundaries with Israel, Libya, Sudan, and the Gaza Strip, a Palestinian area formerly administered by Egypt and occupied by Israel since 1967. The land boundaries are generally straight lines that do not conform to geographic features such as rivers. Egypt shares its longest boundary, which extends 1,273 kilometers, with Sudan. In accordance with the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of 1899, this boundary runs westward from the Red Sea along the twenty-second parallel, includes the Sudanese Nile salient (Wadi Halfa salient), and continues along the twenty-second parallel until it meets the twenty-fifth meridian.
The Sudanese Nile salient, a finger-shaped area along the Nile River (Nahr an Nil) north of the twenty-second parallel, is nearly covered by Lake Nasser, which was created when the Aswan High Dam was constructed in the 1960s. An "administrative" boundary, which supplements the main Egyptian-Sudanese boundary permits nomadic tribes to gain access to water holes at the eastern end of Egypt's southern frontier. The administrative boundary departs from the international boundary in two places; Egypt administers the area south of the twenty-second parallel, and Sudan administers the area north of it.
Egypt shares all 1,150 kilometers of the western border with Libya. This border was defined in 1925 under an agreement with Italy, which had colonized Libya. Before and after World War II, the northern border was adjusted, resulting in the return of the village of As Sallum to Egyptian sovereignty. Egypt shares 255 kilometers of its eastern border in Sinai with Israel and 11 kilometers with the Gaza Strip.
Egypt geography is divided into 30 governorates (sometimes called provinces), which include four city governorates: Alexandria (Al Iskandariyah), Cairo (Al Qahirah), Port Said (Bur Said) and Suez; the nine governorates of Lower Egypt in the Nile Delta region; the eight governorates of Upper Egypt along the Nile River south from Cairo to Aswan; and the five frontier governorates covering Sinai and the deserts that lie west and east of the Nile. All governorates, except the frontier ones, are in the Nile Delta or along the Nile Valley and Suez Canal.
Egypt Geography
Physical Regions

The Nile Valley and Delta is by far the most important region. Without the topographic channel that permits the Nile to flow across the Sahara, Egypt would be entirely desert.
The Libyan Desert (aka the Western Desert) spans from the Mediterranean Sea south to the Sudanese border. It covers approximately 65% of Egypt’s land area and is probably best described as a lot of sand and a few oases.
The Eastern Desert (aka the Arabian Desert) is relatively mountainous and rises rapidly from the Nile Valley on its path eastwards to the Red Sea. The importance of the Eastern Desert lies in its natural resources, especially oil.
The Red Sea is almost completely confined by land. Below its turquoise surface an extreme wealth of coral reefs makes it a sought for refuge to divers from all over the world.
Sinai Peninsula, prized for its strategic position, has been a battleground for millennia, first as a theater for Crusader-Muslim wars and then the Arab-Israeli conflicts. The peninsula is quite mountainous and contains some mineral wealth. 

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