Culture Magazine

Ancient Egypt Science

By Egyking
The oldest civilization in history is the ancient Egyptian civilization, emerges from the pre-history in the period of logging more or less accurate, at a date perhaps not far from 3400 BC . This very, but in many respects static civilization lasted over 3000 years, during which it spread its influence widely. Some archaeologists, indeed, pretend to see in every other civilizations signs of an Egyptian origin. It is universally accepted, however, that in technical arts Egyptian workers have been pioneers in the world, and it is to them that everyone has to turn to the first discovery of these facts that made science possible.

Ancient Egypt Science

Ancient Egypt Science


The historical period is divided into thirty dynasties for convenience, each corresponding to another royal house. So little is known about the first two dynasties is that they are often classified together as Protodynastic, or grouped with the late PreDynastic period, the whole being called Archaic. With the Third Dynasty began the old Kingdom or Pyramid, as it is sometimes called, which lasted until the end of the sixth dynasty. The period of the dynasty to dynasty inclusive seventh decade of one of internal conflict and is not very clear. This is known as the First International period.
The eleventh and twelfth dynasties form the Middle States or the feudal age, a time of great prosperity. The thirteenth dynasty inclusion Seventeenth Dynasty was a period of disorganization, which present knowledge is very meager, except that it included a range of foreign domination under the Hyksos kings. This is the Second Intermediate Period. The Eighteenth Dynasty marked the beginning of the New Kingdom or Empire, which lasted until the end of the twentieth dynasty, during which time Egypt conquered the countries now known as Palestine and Syria, respectively, and became a major power in West Asia. In the twenty-first dynasty of the empire collapsed.
Of the next four dynasties, the twenty-second inclusion twenty-fifth, very little is known except that for some time, the country was governed first by the Ethiopians and later the Assyrians. In the twenty-sixth dynasty there was a revival of the independence and prosperity, which was followed by the Persian conquest and the period of the dynasty of the Twenty-7th-30th Dynasty inclusive was one of the Persian domination, except for brief intervals when Egyptians became independent temporary.
After the Persian conquest in Asia by the Greeks, Alexander the Great took possession of Egypt and the Greek domination under his successors, the Ptolemies, lasted until Egypt became a Roman province, the country then remaining in the Roman occupation until the Arabconquest. As seen from the above summary short, there are several periods of Egyptian history, lasting in some cases, two or three hundred years, of which very little is known, and even periods that are best known information is very partial.
1) the art techniques related to Alchemy in ancient Egypt origin of the word alchemy
"Alchemy" The word, as the Arabic article al-defined indicates, is Arabic (al-klmya '). The origin of the word "Kimya, pre-Arab, is controversial. Several hypotheses more or less plausible or legendary have been advanced. For some, the term comes from the Egyptian kemi (black), 

hence the Greek kemia which might indicate two things :
Egypt, "black earth", according to Plutarch - alchemy would be eminently the science of Egypt, "the Black", the original matter of transmutation, ie the art of "black metal" process to produce precious metals.
For others, "Chemy the word could have come from the Greek khymeia," fusion ", ie the art of melting gold and silver. Byzantine text says that Diocletian ordered the destruction of Egyptian pounds khymeia, the "fusion" of gold and silver. The image of King Gehouti or Thoth, the ancient Egyptian god of wisdom and knowledge. The ancient Egyptians usually represented him by one of two symbols, the Ibis or monkey. He was worshiped in Ashmounin, a town in Upper Egypt.
In the emblem, the Godtakes the image of a man crowned with the head of the bird Ibis. He is seated and holding a pen and paper. Important and valuable archaeological discoveries related to this god were made under the sponsorship of the University of Cairo in the field of Ashmounin and tunaEl Gabal.
Metallurgy

Metallurgy in particular was carried out with an elaborate technique and a commercial organization which is not unworthy of the modern world, while the systematic exploitation of mines was an important industry that employs thousands of workers. Same as 3400 BC, thebeginning of the historical period, the Egyptians had an intimate knowledge of copper ores and metals extraction process. During the fourth and subsequent dynasties (ie from about 2900 BC), metals seem to have been entirely monopolies of the Court, themanagement of mines and quarries being entrusted to the highest officials and sometimes even the son of Pharaoh.
Whether these exalted personages were themselves professional metallurgists we do not know, but we can at least assume that the details of metallurgical practice, being of extreme importance to the Crown, were carefully guarded by the vulgar. And when we rememberthe close association between the Egyptian royal family and the priestly class we appreciate the probable truth of the tradition that chemistry came to light in the laboratories of Egyptian priests.

Ancient Egypt Science
Extraction of copper and iron
In addition to copper, which was exploited in the eastern desert between the Nile and the Red Sea, iron was known in Egypt from a very early period and came into general use about 800 BC According to Lucas, iron appears to have Asia was a discovery. It was certainly known in Asia Minor about I300 BC One of the kings of the Hittites sent Rameses II, the famous pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty, an iron sword and a promise of an expedition of the same metal.
The Egyptians called iron 'the metal of heaven' or ba-en-animal, indicating that the first specimen employed were of meteoric origin, the name of Babylon having the same meaning.
It was probably because of its rarity that iron was so prized by the ancient Egyptians, while its celestial source would have its fascination. Strange to say, it has not been used for decorative, religious or symbolic, which - coupled with the fact that if it rustsreadily - may explain why relatively few iron objects of the age of onset of the dynasty were discovered.

He who has fortunately survived presents several points of interest: it is a tool of iron masonry of the Great Pyramid of Cheops at Giza, and therefore probably dates from the time of the pyramid was built, about 2900 BC This tool was subjected to chemical agentsanalysis and was found to contain combined carbon, suggesting that it could have been made of steel. In BC 666 the cementation process was used for the edges of iron tools, but the story that the Egyptians had some secret means of hardening copper andbronze, which has since been lost is probably without foundation. Desch has shown that the hammered bronze, containing 10.34 percent. tin, is considerably harder than copper and keeps an edge better.
Other non-precious metals, tin was used in the manufacture of bronze, and cobalt was detected as a coloring agent in some samples of glass and enamel. Neither metal occurs naturally in Egypt, and it seems likely that the supply of ore were imported from Persia.Lead, although she has never found wide application, was among the first metals known, specimen having been found in tombs of the predynastic period. Galena (PbS) was mined in Egypt at Gebel Rasas ("Mountain of Lead"), a few miles from the coast of the Red Sea, and the provision must have been pretty good, because when the area was re -worked from 19I2 to 1915, he produced more than I8, 000 tons of ore.
 
Gold

Large quantities of gold amassed by the Pharaohs were the envy of contemporary leaders and later. Although much has been imported, received by way of tribute, or captured in the war, the Egyptian mines themselves were quite productive. Over one hundred ancient gold mines were discovered in Egypt and Sudan, but within the limits of Egypt proper, he seems to have been gold mines in the desert valleys east of the Nile near Ikoptos and Ombos Apollinopolis Magna. On one of these mines - possibly near Apollinopolis - a plan was found in a papyrus of the fourteenth century BC, and the rest of at least 1,300 houses for gold miners are still visible in Wadi Fawakhir at halfway between Coptos and the Red Sea.
In a treasure room of the temple of Ramses III at Medinet Habu, are represented eight large bags, seven of which contained gold and bear the following descriptive labels . The Egyptian word for gold is essential, which survives in the name Nubia, a country which for much of this precious metal in ancient times. French scientist Champollion he regarded as a kind of crucible, while Rossellini and Lepsius preferred to see him in a bag or cloth, withends hanging, in which the grains of gold were washed - the radiating lines representing rivers crossing.
Ancient Egypt Science
Crivelli has more recently advanced the theory that the symbol for gold is the symbol of a portable furnace used for melting gold, and the rays represent the flames, which, "as can be observed in using this type of oven, are unable to climb because the wind carries them to the horizontal. " In subsequent dynasties, the Egyptians themselves forgot the original meaning of the sign and drew it as a necklace with beads dangling. Elliot Smith, however, said it was the primitive form and became the determining factor of the goddess Hathor, the Egyptian Aphrodite, who was the guardian of the valleys of the East, where gold was found.
Ancient Egypt Science
The gold mines of Nubia and other parts of the Egyptian empire seems to have been very effective, designed and controlled, but with total disregard for the human element employed.
Alluvial auriferous sand was also treated, a distinction being made between the gold obtained in this way and undermined. The latter was called a node-by-play, gold is the mountain, while alluvial gold was named node-in-mu ", that is Gold River." Auriferoussand was placed in a bag made of a layer with the entrails woolly side, water was then added and the bag vigorously shaken by two men. When water is spilled, the soil particles were washed away, leaving the heavier particles of gold adhering to the fleece. There is a photo of this on one of the buildings at Thebes.
Mercury

Mercury (Greek hydrargyros, cash; Latin Argentum-vivum, money, live or fast) is supposed to have been found in Egyptian tombs from 1500 to 1600 BC
Metal and mysticism

In the first centuries of our era, however, he gradually developed a mysticism among chemical writers due to Egyptian and Chaldean religious magical ideas, and developed a relationship fantasy metals such as sun and planets, and therefore , itborn the belief that it was necessary to limit the number of metals to seven years.
Century AD and the Olympidorous 6 gives the following relationship:
 
Gold - The SunSilver - The MoonElectrum - JupiterIron - MarchCopper - VenusTin - MercuryLead - Saturn
Metallurgy was not the only art practiced with conspicuous success by the ancient Egyptian artisans. Glass was almost certainly the invention, and not the Phoenicians, Egyptians, however, and was produced on a large scale from a very early date.
Art of glass making

This art is of ancient origin with the Egyptians, as reflected in glass jars, figurines and ornaments discovered in the tombs. The paintings on the tombs have been interpreted as descriptive of the process of glass blowing. These illustrations representing smiths blowingtheir fires by means of reeds tipped with clay. Therefore, it can be concluded that glass blowing is apparently of Egyptian origin.
The remains of glass furnaces discovered by Flinders Petrie at Tell el-Amarna (1400 BC) illustrate the manufacture of rods, beads, and jars or other figures, formed apparently by covering clay cores with glass and later, remove the stones.
Egyptian glass articles were of colored glass, often beautifully patterned. Analyses of ancient Egyptian glass articles show that generally glass is a soda-lime glass with rather soda content as compared with modern soda-lime glass.
Ancient Egypt Science
Analysis provided no different from those of some soda-lime glasses of modern times. Lead was used in ancient times the glasses. French scientist analyzed a vase of the fourth dynasty in Egypt which contained about a quarter lead. Artificial pearls, made of glass, were manufactured in such numbers that they formed an important article of export trade, and the old legends of enormous emeralds and other precious stones are most reasonably explained on assumption that the stock preparationjewelry was widely undertaken.
The first glass factories whose remains have been found dating from the eighteenth dynasty, and the object, the oldest dating from the glass ball is a large pearl bearing the cartouche of Amen-Hotep I, now in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. The invention of glass blowing, as opposed tothe old method of casting glass, is relatively recent, dating only to about the beginning of the Christian era. Sir Flinders Petrie has shown that the reliefs at Beni-Hassan, who were once supposed to represent glass-blowers are more likely to be interpreted as metal-workers blowing a fire.
 
Textiles and dyeing

S the start of the art of weaving and dyeing are lost in antiquity. Mummy cloths of varying degrees of fitness, still evidencing the dyer skills, are preserved in many museums.
The invention of royal purple was perhaps as early as 1600 BC From the painted walls of tombs, temples and other structures that have been protected against exposure to weather, and decorated surfaces of pottery, the Chemical analysis is often able to give us knowledge ofmaterials used for these purposes.

Thus, the pigments from the tomb of Perneb (estimated at 2650 BC) which was presented at the Metropolitan Museum in New York in 1913, were examined by Maximilian Toch. He found that the red pigment was found to be iron oxide, hematite, yellow clay wascontaining iron or yellow ocher, a blue color was a finely powdered glass, and one was a pale blue copper carbonate, probably azurite, malachite green were; black was charcoal or boneblack; gray limestone mixed with charcoal, and a remaining amount of pigment in a paintused in the decoration, contained a mixture of haematite with limestone and clay.
So many analyzes results made by known scientists all serve to illustrate the character of the evidence furnished by chemical analysis of surviving samples of the products of the chemical industry at the beginning.

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